USNEWS:英国大学毕业后如何了解就业?

USNEWS:如何报名参加托福考试
2018年12月25日
史蒂文森高中(New York, NY)
2018年12月26日
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By Farran Powell

英国教育优势很大,比如它是英语系教育,它有名校牛津剑桥;但最重要的一点是学费便宜!当然你会说,哪里便宜了,当然是对比美国!由于教育语言一样,英国毕业后仍然可以象从美国毕业一样找同等需求的岗位;比如,很多做美国贸易留学移民业务的工作人员都是从英国或澳大利亚毕业的!当然,对于相当一部分同学来说,毕业后能够在英国就业,仍然是非常有吸引力的!不仅能够获得相对较高的收入,至少还能获得国外公司的工作经验!但是,现在对于在英国的国际学生毕业生来说,获得工作的机会可能会很棘手!下面我们就来看看USNEWS关于这个问题的分析。虽然我们可以理解为美英教育之间的竞争,USNEWS有打击英国教育的嫌疑;但事实是英国的教育体系对美国的顶尖大学基本不会有太大的影响!选择美国留学的同学,不管英国宣传的再好,依然不会改变自己的目的地!真正有嫌疑的是美国排名200——500名的学校!毕竟美国财政一直在减少对高等教育的投入,这样就只能保证一批顶尖的优势大学能够确保科研及运营,毕竟这些学校是美国的脸面,也是美国维持全球竞争力的根本所在;但对于普通的大学,尤其是公立大学,它们的运营就会由于财政问题变得举步为艰!怎么为?当然是扩大对收费学生的招生了!而现在全球能够承担起美国高昂学费的学生在哪里?只有中国才有这个体量。但是这是一个衡定的数字,选择去英加澳新,就不会去美国了。因此这篇文章就可以看成USNEWS对英国教育的一个负面的展示。

Omar Oualili, like many international students, went to the United Kingdom for a quality education at a relatively low cost.

“My parents could not afford to send me to study in the U.S. – it’s too far and too expensive. What I paid in the U.K. during my whole studies – a bachelor’s and master’s in four years – would have only been the same amount for just one year in the U.S.,” says Oualili, 24, who moved to London from Casablanca, Morocco.

But securing work sponsorship after graduation can be tricky: In 2012, the U.K. changed its time limit for recent international student graduates to obtain a work visa from two years to four months.

Oualili completed a bachelor’s and master’s degree in accounting and finance at the University of West London in 2015 and 2016, respectively. The Moroccan student, who is now pursing an additional postgraduate degree in the political economy of the Middle East at King’s College London, says securing employment after his first master’s degree was stressful.

“I used to work part time for an ad tech company called Empello during my studies. After graduation, my student visa was about to expire, and they offered me a full-time job. It was really about luck because it is very hard to secure a work sponsorship in the U.K.,” Oualili says.

Nearly 70 percent of the more than 450,000 international students who studied in the U.K. in 2016-2017 were from non-European Union countries, according to data from the UK Council for International Student Affairs. While the U.K. has experienced modest growth in international student enrollment in recent years, U.K. universities say the country’s immigration policies for international students are too restrictive.

New enrollments of international students in higher education institutions in the U.K. grew 1.7 percent between 2015-16 and 2016-17, with enrollments in an undergraduate or “first degree” program growing 2.4 percent, which, though modest, represents a turnaround after two years of decline in new international students, Michael Peak, senior education advisor at the British Council, wrote in an email.

Randy LeGrant, executive director GeoVisions, a U.S.-based organization that offers student volunteer opportunities abroad, says the U.K.’s slight growth in international student enrollment between 2015 and 2017 does not reflect its current or future trajectory; these are “probably students who timed their graduating before Brexit,” he says.

Britain’s impending exit from the European Union, known as Brexit, is currently slated for March 2019.

The U.K. scrapped its post-study visa program in 2012, several years prior the Brexit referendum. The U.K.’s Home Office, the department that handles visas and immigration, has also been examining ways to reduce the country’s net migration.

Currently, “if a student has been accepted for a job whilst studying, the employer can sponsor the student leading to a Tier 2 visa, which lasts up to five years and 14 days or the length of your position,” says Stephen Spriggs, managing director of William Clarence Education, a London-based education consultancy firm. “Without work already secured, it can be difficult to remain in the U.K. following the expiration of a student visa.”

Spriggs says master’s and Ph.D. students may find it easier. For example, some Ph.D. students may be able to take advantage of a special visa extension program that allows them to stay in the country for an additional 12 months.

Critics of the U.K.’s lack of a postgraduate visa scheme for undergraduates say it could put the country at odds for maintaining its position as a popular destination among non-EU international students.

While the U.K. is currently the second-most-popular destination for international students, its market share has declined slightly in recent years, according to a U.K. government report released in September, “Impact of International Students in the UK.” The report says that while the number of Chinese students in the U.K. has remained stable at more than 65,000, the number of Indian students, for instance, has dropped.

Higher education experts say the U.K. and the U.S. are losing some of their competitive edge as international students are being lured to Australia, Canada and New Zealand, which heavily promote the advantages of study in their countries.

As of 2016, the U.S. allows STEM graduates who are on F-1 student visas up to three years of employment through its Optional Practical Training program. Meanwhile, Canada offers up to a three-year postgraduate work visa; similarly, New Zealand will offer up to three years for its post-study open work visa, effective Nov. 28.

Universities UK, a member organization that represents the country’s higher education institutions, is lobbying for an unrestricted post-study visa to allow graduates to seek jobs without a sponsor. The organization is also calling for the U.K. government to lower the income threshold for a Tier 2 work visa from £20,800 ($26,983) to £19,500 ($25,297) for an entrant salary.

“The ability to work in a skilled job for a limited period after graduation is, for many prospective international students, an important part of the overall package when deciding where to study. We are proposing a new graduate visa that would make the UK more attractive to students,” said Janet Beer, president of Universities UK and vice-chancellor of the University of Liverpool, in a September press statement.

“It would send a more welcoming message to international students and signal that the UK is open to talented individuals from around the world. As Brexit discussions continue, the UK needs an ambitious immigration policy that helps boost our regional and global competitiveness.”

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